GUIDE FOR AUTHORS
Types of paper
Contributions may be original papers, review articles or case studies. The subject and content of review articles should be discussed with the Editors prior to submission to the journal. In general, the manuscript should not exceed 8 000 words.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). The Editors suggest avoidance of usage of first person (we, us, our) in the text.
The manuscript should be prepared on a word-processor, in single column, double-spaced typing in Times New Roman, font size 12 on A4 pages. Artificial (hyphenated) word breaks should not be used at the end of lines. Footnotes to the text should be avoided. All pages should be numbered consecutively. To facilitate the review process continuous line numbers should be inserted in the text of the manuscript.
Follow this order when typing manuscripts: Title, Authors, Affiliations, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgements, References, Figure Captions, Tables and Figures.
Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the Abstract, Acknowledgement and Reference sections are not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
Essential title page information
• Title.Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
The abstracts (both Farsi and English) should consist of about 150-200 words.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Abbreviations of chemical or other names should be defined when first mentioned, unless the abbreviation is commonly used and internationally known and accepted, e.g. ATP, DNA, EDTA, GC-MS, GLC, HPLC, IU (International Unit). For approximately, use approx. or c. (not ca.); for versus, use vs (not v.); for the statistical terms standard deviation, standard error and standard error of the mean, use SD, SE, and SEM without definition.
The SI system should be used for all scientific and laboratory data; if, in certain instances, it is necessary to quote other units, these should be added in parentheses. Temperatures should be given in degrees Celsius. Abbreviations for units should follow the suggestions of the British Standards publication BS 1991. The full stop should not be included in scientific abbreviations such as h (not h.), m (not m.), and ppm (not p.p.m.); '%' should be used in preference to 'per cent'; 'per', as in mg per liter, should be written in exponential notation as mg l-1 (not mg/l). Where abbreviations are likely to cause ambiguity or cannot be readily understood by an international readership, units should be given in full. Greek symbols and unusual symbols used for the first time should be defined by name in the left-hand margin.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
All the figures used in the manuscript must be referred to and explained in the text in the abbreviated form "Fig. x" (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, …). Avoid adding borders or shadings to Figures. Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
The total number of Figures and Tables should not exceed 10. All the tables used in the manuscript must be referred to and explained in the text in the form "Table x" (Table 1, Table 2, …).Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). References should not be cited in the abstract. It is not recommended that unpublished results and personal communications be included in the reference list, although they may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
All references should be in English. There should be a list of references in alphabetical order at the end of the paper, following examples below. All references in this list must be cited in the text, and vice versa. The references should be indicated at the appropriate place in the text using surnames and year of publication, as in Canale-Parola (1992), Eaton and Hale (1993), and for three or more authors Bjordal et al. (2000). Where in a series, references should be in ascending order of year, as in (Daniel and Nilsson 1986; Canale-Parola 1992; Eaton and Hale 1993; Björdal et al. 2000). Where two or more papers by the same author(s) are published in the same year they should be cited as Smith (1995a), Smith (1995b), etc. When together in parentheses they should appear as (Smith 1992a,b). Each reference in the list should give names and initials of ALL authors, and the year and the exact title of the paper or book. For journals there should follow the full title, volume number (but not part number), and initial and final page numbers of the article; for books there should follow the name of the publisher and place of publication. The styles for contributions to edited books and proceedings, reports and online articles are shown below. Unpublished data or private communications should not appear in the reference list. References to unpublished data will only be accepted at the discretion of the Editors.
Harris, M., Karper, E., Stacks, G., Hoffman, D., DeNiro, R., Cruz, P., et al. (2001). Writing labs and the Hollywood connection. Journal of Film Writing, 44(3), 213–245.
Article by DOI
Slifka, M. K., & Whitton, J. L. (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. Journal of Molecular Medicine, doi:10.1007/s001090000086
Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
O’Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men’s and women’s gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107–123). New York: Springer.
Abou-Allaban, Y., Dell, M. L., Greenberg, W., Lomax, J., Peteet, J., Torres, M., & Cowell, V. (2006). Religious/spiritual commitments and psychiatric practice. Resource document. American Psychiatric Association. http://www.psych.org/edu/other_res/lib_archives/archives/200604.pdf. Accessed 25 June 2007.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references should be listed separately (i.e., after the reference list) under the heading "Web References".
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Phone numbers
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
• If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes